Casper Bluff Land & Water Reserve

Not only does Casper Bluff Land & Water Reserve boast some of the most commanding views of the Mississippi River and its backwater sloughs, it is also an archaeologically significant site. The 85-acre site contains the Aiken Mound Group, named for the nearby community of Aiken. Our knowledge of these mounds stems from 1900, when William Baker Nickerson, an amateur archaeologist who worked for the railroads, documented 51 mounds at this location: 38 long, wall-like structures, 12 conical mounds, and one thunderbird effigy. Nickerson also observed an earth ellipse or hut-ring and two circular depressions.

Nickerson’s limited excavation of the mounds in 1900 produced pottery fragments, indicating the fill may have come from a nearby habitation site. Archaeologists from the University of Chicago visited the site in 1926; however, only 40 mounds were observed at that time. In 2006, Phil Millhouse from the University of Illinois was able to relocate Nickerson’s original map, kept at the Illinois State Museum. Using GIS technology, the location of all 51 mounds documented by Nickerson have been identified. At the present, however, only 20 mounds can be visually identified on the ground surface. Agricultural cropping and grazing have no doubt affected the integrity of the mounds.

The Aiken Mound Group is part of the larger Effigy Mound culture that existed between A.D. 700 and A.D. 1000 in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and Illinois. While most of what is known about the site is based on the mounds themselves, there is a possibility that there may still be intact archaeological features among the mounds. Skeletal remains from the Aiken Mounds have been found in adjacent crop fields. Habitation sites, while not mapped, were thought to occur in the nearby low-lying fields east of the steep river bluffs where the ceremonial mounds are located.

While the Effigy Mound peoples are thought to have abandoned the region after A.D. 1000, as late as 1875 members of the Ho-Chunk Nation performed ceremonies in the vicinity of Aiken Mounds and constructed a burial mound for the son of their leader, Green Blanket. This burial site is thought to be located one mile east of the reserve within the bottomlands of Small Pox Creek.

Upcoming Events

Moonlight Frog Walk

April 26 @ 6:00 pm - 8:30 pm

Bring the whole family for an adventure along the levee in Galena, an early evening frog walk beginning on the east side of the Meeker Street footbridge adjacent to the Galena River Trail in downtown Galena, IL. The event begins at 6:00 pm. Learn all about frogs and toads, join us in a toast to […] Read More

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Calling all Volunteers: Spring Bird Count 2019

May 4 @ 6:00 am - 4:30 pm

Do you have an interest in birds?  Can you identify most of those that visit your backyard? Would you like to have the chance to see many new and different species in a single day in the company of an experienced birder? We are seeking volunteers on Saturday, May 4th, to join a day-long Spring […] Read More

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iNaturalist Workshop with Cassi Saari

May 18 @ 9:00 am - 2:00 pm

Become a citizen scientist at our iNaturalist Workshop! iNaturalist is an online community of people recording and sharing their observations of the natural world. Whether your a total nature-nerd or just simply going for a walk, your observations of the natural world can help generate scientifically valuable biodiversity data. In this workshop, you will learn […] Read More

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Ice Cream Social

May 30 @ 5:00 pm - 6:30 pm

JDCF’s Friends of Wapello invite you and your entire family to join them for an old fashioned ice cream social fundraiser under the new pavilion at the Wapello Land & Water Reserve on Thursday, May 30th from 5-8PM. Bring your lawn chairs, picnic baskets and blankets to enjoy the sights and sounds of Wapello while […] Read More

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